The new CCI, with responsibility for reversing the rising crime rate, combined the intelligence and operational resources of the security police with the anticrime capabilities of the CID. The medals available to the SAP between 1923 and 1963 were thus: Until 1952, they were incorporated into the British honours system. In 1992 Kriel began restructuring the SAP into a three-tiered force consisting of a national police, primarily responsible for internal security and for serious crime; autonomous regional forces, responsible for crime prevention and for matters of general law and order; and municipal police, responsible for local law enforcement and for minor criminal matters. The Vlakplaas farm became the site of multiple executions of political opponents of the apartheid government. [6] It took over the South African Railways Police Force in 1986[citation needed]. What followed from apartheid dispossession and disenfranchisement was a series of laws displacing people or making their location in one or more place insecure or vulnerable. The police were heavily armed after that, especially when facing unruly or hostile crowds. Their basic training lasted 6 months. The movement gained popularity and grew after news of police killing unarmed protesters in South Africa. Proclamation 18 formed the South African Police on 1 April 1913 with the amalgamation of the police forces of the four old colonies after the founding of the Union of South Africa in 1910. [2]:Chp2[4] The Commission to Inquire into Certain Intelligence Aspects of State Security, known better as the Potgieter Commission would investigate the clashes between the two organisations over who had primary responsibility for intelligence gathering in South Africa. On 20 November 1978, the Bureau of State Security was brought under tighter control as a cabinet portfolio called National Security managed by Prime Minister who also held the Minister of Defence portfolio. This action, which escalated into a full-scale undeclared war and had received neither approval nor discussion from the Cabinet, prompted further outrage at the organization. Thereafter they formed part of the new South African honours system. The South African Secret Service (SASS) was the previous name of a South African intelligence agency.Currently, it is known as the Foreign Branch of the State Security Agency.It is responsible for all non-military foreign intelligence and for counterintelligence within the Service itself. Another reserve (volunteer) force was established in 1966, consisting of unpaid, mostly White civilians willing to perform limited police duties. To meet the new challenges, the 91,000 active police personnel in 1991, including administrative and support personnel, were increased to more than 110,000 by 1993 and 140,000 by 1995. Very. Policemen and women were eligible for a number of awards. The Police Act (No. South African police have made important strides to achieving democratic policing and the South African people have acknowledged such progress through their acceptance of the new South African Police Service. Police Action Against Black South Africans . I argue that what has changed most since the end of apartheid is the relationship between policing and political order. The basic police training regimen includes courses in criminal investigation procedures, self-defense, musketry, tactical weapons training, drills, inspections, public relations and law. Botha had decided to split the intelligence gathering ability of South Africa amongst four agencies, the DMI, BOSS/DONS, Security Branch and Foreign Affairs, hoping to reduce the political dominance by one over the others, but the rivalry would continue. [6]:120 [6]:122 Beginning with the covert Operation Savannah in 1975, it helped organize operations against the MPLA during the Angolan Civil War with the assistance of the U.S. State Department and the Central Intelligence Agency. In March 1960 police fired upon a crowd protesting peacefully against the pass laws in Sharpeville, killing at … F or a child growing up in Soweto, South Africa, in 1976, apartheid was an abstract concept. A scandal was the main reason for its replacement by NIS in 1980. In the 1930s, the Union of South Africa had formed an intelligence organization modeled after MI5 and MI6 as a special branch of the South African Police. C1 was also responsible for several fatal bomb attacks against anti-apartheid activists, including members of the African National Congress. Potgieter to establish the guidelines and mission for intelligence gathering by the Military Intelligence (later DMI) and the Bureau for State Security. It and the South African Defense Force managed Operation Plathond, an operation to train insurgents in an attempt to destabilize Zambia, before President Kenneth Kaunda accused South Africa of destabilization operations. The word “apartheid” means “separateness” in Afrikaans. Proclamation 18 formed the South African Police on 1 April 1913 with the amalgamation of the police forces of the four old colonies after the founding of the Union of South Africain 1910. It worked closely with intelligence services of other white-minority governments including PIDE of Estado Novo Portugal and its colonial empire as well as the British South Africa Police of Rhodesia to coordinate counterinsurgency operations between the three countries. The SAP relinquished its responsibility for South West Africa in 1981. In addition to the 300 prosecutions that the authorities have ignored, there are a further 1,200 cases of people who went missing during the apartheid era when South African police … Police took direct action, including opening fire on demonstrators. training at Maleoskop (now closed) in specialised weapons and "bush warfare" in preparation for their 3 months "call up". The following people have served as the Commissioner of the South African Police:[7][8]. [2]:Chp4 Believing that the outcome of both inquiries were already predetermined, BOSS officials began to shred any document that could be used against them. After South Africa became a republic (in 1961), the government instituted an entirely new series of decorations and medals for the SAP. He is a former head of the South African Secret Service. [2]:Chp4 At the same time, the Erasmus Commission of Inquiry was investigating the Information scandal. This followed another senior African National Congress (ANC) member and former minister Derek Hanekom also filing a defamation lawsuit against Zuma for calling him “a known enemy agent” on Twitter. From 1961 to 1990, a total of 67 people died in South African Police detention from hanging and torture as well as natural causes as claimed by the Police. This search-and-seize zone was extended to within eight miles of any border in 1979 and to the entire country in 1983. As the apartheid era ended, these programs were restructured to emphasise racial tolerance and respect for basic human rights. In 2012, Ramaphosa, a wealthy businessman before becoming president, encouraged police to end a wildcat strike at the Marikana Mine. A White South African scientist has told the Truth and Reconciliation Commission that the White apartheid government considered trying to develop a bacteria which would kill only Africans. People “fell” from high buildings while in the Police’s care. [2]:Chp2 On the 1 October 1968, Lieutenant-General Hendrik van den Bergh, Deputy Police Commissioner and Head of the Security Branch, was promoted to General and then appointed as Security Advisor to Prime Minister John Vorster. ALEXANDRA, South Africa — During apartheid, the government wielded the police like a club, using them to keep black South Africans in check and brutally extinguish any dissent. In 1960, it became the official security branch. Police reports from the time of the massacre claimed that panicking officers spontaneously fired into an increasingly violent crowd; however, other sources claim that the demonstration was peaceful in the moment leading up to the shooting. [2]:Chp2, BOSS was actively involved in South Africa's foreign policy. In 1987, for example, the police recruited almost 9,000 kitskonstabels and gave them an intensive six-week training course. Source: warwick.ac.uk . It is the name given to the particular racial-social ideology developed in South Africa during the twentieth century. KwaZulu, Lebowa, QwaQwa, Transkei, and Venda, and was renamed the South African Police Service. Botha appointed Niel Barnard in November 1979 to form a new intelligence service. [3]:438 The General Law Amendment Bill was introduced on 4 June 1969 and passed into law on 30 June, with two clauses of interest to BOSS. (Some volunteering and been called up more frequently.) [2]:105 The SAP originally policed cities and urban areas, while the South African Mounted Riflemen, a branch of the Union Defence Force, enforced the state's writ in rural areas. [2]:Chp4 It was believed that it was predetermined that the DMI would be the lead intelligence agency. This was discontinued in 1933, because South Africa had become independent as a member of the new British Commonwealth, and it was replaced in 1937 by a special South African issue of the medal. We based our discussion on Feld’s (2010) article American Jews and the Struggle Over Apartheid. Rape under such circumstances is the assertion of male power, and, as expected, the numbers of rape cases … Although the Afrikaners were the minority ethnic group in the country, the Afrikaner National Party gained control of the government in 1948. 1 review Winter blows the whistle on his career as a journalist working for the South African intelligence forces during the Apartheid years. At its core, apartheid was all about racial segregation. A total of 69 unarmed blacks were killed by the police during that protest. It is also responsible for gathering, correlating, evaluating and analysing this intelligence. Apartheid–South Africa–History. There is a specific scene where the white head of Secret Police made that statement and had emptied the prison of known black career criminals and paid them gold (krugger rands- the cops had stolen from the mint in South Africa) to attack each other and stroke tribal warfare. The police were authorised to act on behalf of other government officials when called upon. [13], The Police Reserve, established in 1973, enabled the government to recall former police personnel for active duty for thirty to ninety days each year, and for additional service in times of emergency. Most of these constables were Blacks and Coloreds. Security guards in South Africa clashing with police during a 96-day strike of private security personnel in 2006. Botha to prime minister, the SADF's power increased in cabinet, along with that the Directorate Military Intelligence (DMI), who would strive to dominate security issues in the new government and decide its policy and implementation. From 1948 through the 1990s, a single word dominated life in South Africa. This past week South Africa’s former defence minister Siphiwe Nyanda issued former President Jacob Zuma with a defamation lawsuit for calling him an apartheid spy. The South African Police were the successors to the police forces of the Cape Colony, the Natal Colony, the Orange River Colony, and the Transvaal Colony in law enforcement in South Africa. After South Africa's transition to majority rule in 1994, the SAP was reorganised into the South African Police Service (SAPS). BOSS took on different names before and after the official establishment thereof. The organization also arranged for political assassinations. The Europeans in South Africa were responsible for establishing apartheid in the 20th century. [3]:114, In 1939, the SAP took over the South West African Police and became responsible for policing South West Africa, which was under South African administration at that time. 7) of 1958 broadened the mission of the SAP beyond conventional police functions, such as maintaining law and order and investigating and preventing crime and gave the police extraordinary powers to quell unrest and to conduct counterinsurgency activities. During 1959 and 1960, violence broke out in several South African cities. This film explores South Africa's apartheid policy, focusing on issues such as race relations, political practices, and segregated dwellings. South African police have made important strides to achieving democratic policing and the South African people have acknowledged such progress through their acceptance of the new South African Police Service. Apartheid—Afrikaans for “apartness”—kept the country’s majority black population South African police beat black women with clubs after anti-apartheid protesters raided and set a beer hall on fire in Durban, South Africa in 1959. He has faced down numerous legal challenges over his work to produce drugs and agents to target anti-apartheid activists. During the time of the S.A. border war all Policemen were required to complete a 6-week intensive counter insurgence (C.O.I.N.) After the war, the South African Police joined INTERPOL on 1 January 1948.[4][5]. [2]:Chp4, "Prime Minister John Vorster appoints a Commission of Inquiry under Justice H.J. In turn, one SAP brigade served with the 2nd Infantry Division of the South African Army in North Africa during World War II. Union of South Africa, Apartheid, Escape from the Secret Police by D'LynnWaldron, PhD, FRGS ©1960-2011 I was in the Union of South Africa in 1960 as a roving correspondent for Scripps-Howard newspapers when I came to be a fugitive from the Boer Afrikaner police at the time of the Sharpsville massacre, and following the Coalbrook coal mining disaster on January 1, 1960 in which there were … Specialized courses include crowd and riot control, detective skills, horsemanship and veterinary training, and advanced-level management skills. Active within the Namibian War of Independence from 1979 to 1989, they were held responsible for committing multiple human rights violations, and alongside the South West African Police, they were disbanded following Namibian independence in 1989, and were essentially replaced by the Special Field Force in modern-day Namibia. Through the early 1980s, police units were integrated, but most police recruits had been trained in single-race classes, sometimes in institutions designated for one racial group. Peter Hain, a South African exile, became the public face of the movement, leading a successful effort to get the South African cricket and rugby teams banned from Britain. Formed following a need to defend the border between South Africa and Rhodesia during the Rhodesian Bush War, the Special Task Force were unofficially founded in 1967, and began to be trained to use advanced tactics, such as survival and bush skills, to carry out COIN operations, and drastically reduce police casualties - this unit was known as the 'Bliksems'. While this is understandable, it has blinded scholars to profound changes. The Bureau was involved in the Information Scandal or Muldergate Scandal, in which South African Government funds were used to establish a pro-National Party English language newspaper, The Citizen. Very little has been written about the South African secret intelligence, but revelations to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission and the new culture of confessions now make that possible. In 1996 the combined active and reserve police represented a police-to-population ratio of almost 4.0 per 1,000. Apartheid . In 1973, a ground-breaking film, Joe Bullet, was screened - for the very first time - at the Eyethu Cinema in Soweto. Protesters flee as police charge during riots in Cape Town in 1976. Alarmed by the increased political violence and crime in the mid-1980s and by the lack of adequate police support, officials then increased the size of the police force to 93,600—a ratio of 2.7 per 1,000 people—by 1991. C1 was run out of a secluded farmhouse called Vlakplaas until 1992. We discussed in this class what might inspire a Jew to help a black South African noting, at the time only 2% of the white population in South Africa was Jewish but 60% of the white anti-apartheid activists in South Africa were Jewish (Feld 2010). [11], In 1983, the SAP formed C1, a counter-insurgency unit commanded by police colonel and former Koevoet operator Eugene de Kock. A black girl born to white parents during Apartheid South Africa was a national sensation. During the apartheid regime, South Africa became a police state. Jacob Zuma. The police could legally serve as wardens, court clerks, and messengers, as well as immigration, health, and revenue officials. The true consequences was not a blessing to her, and her children. [2]:Chp4, The new Prime Minister P.W. A finger printing office was established in Pietermaritzburg in 1900, a year before Britain’s Scotland Yard followed suit, and by 1925 several offices had mushroomed, necessitating the creation of the South African Criminal Bureau. Tricks of the trade included rape, torture and killings. 1 review Winter blows the whistle on his career as a journalist working for the South African intelligence forces during the Apartheid years. This followed another senior African National Congress (ANC) member and former minister Derek Hanekom also filing a defamation lawsuit against Zuma for calling him “a known enemy agent” on Twitter. In 1969, Malawi was the only country at the assembly which did not sign the Lusaka Manifesto condemning South Africa' apartheid policy. The South African political landscape was dominated in the 1970s by the Black Consciousness Movement (BCM) and anti-apartheid student political activity. It was headed by Hendrik van den Bergh. [3]:437 It outlined the control of the Bureau for State Security would rest with Prime Minister and that the civil service Public Service Commission would have no control over it powers, functions and duties. [2]:Chp2 The Potgieter Commission reported back on the 2 February 1972 and the results were subsequently used to enact the Security Intelligence and State Security Council Act 64 of 1972 on 24 May 1972. [3]:439, On 5 September 1969, Prime Minister John Vorster formed a commission led by Justice H.J. A youth wing of this reserve force reported that it had inducted almost 3,000 students and young people to assist the police during the late 1980s.[14]. It was added to several times over the years: For the former police force in Rhodesia, see, Flag of the South African Police (1981–1994), Learn how and when to remove these template messages, Learn how and when to remove this template message, South African Police Star for Distinguished Leadership, South African Police Star for Distinguished Service, South African Police Silver Cross for Gallantry, South African Police Star for Outstanding Service, South African Police Medal for Combating Terrorism, South African Police Seventy-Fifth Anniversary Commemorative Medal, South African Police Service Amalgamation Medal, South African Police Star for Faithful Service, South African Police Medal for Faithful Service, List of law enforcement agencies in South Africa, https://www.c-span.org/video/?56323-1/south-african-election-special-2, INTERPOL MEMBERSHIP – HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE, ACCOUNTABILITY IN NAMIBIA Human Rights And The Transition To Democracy, "Commissioners of the South African Police (1913–1994)", https://abs-isd-police.weebly.com/about.html, "The Role of Political Violence in South Africa's Democratisation", Truth and Reconciliation – The Voice of 'Prime Evil', https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=South_African_Police&oldid=1001596838, Defunct law enforcement agencies of South Africa, Wikipedia articles needing reorganization from February 2015, Articles needing additional references from February 2015, All articles needing additional references, Articles lacking in-text citations from February 2014, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Pages using law enforcement agency with local civilian police general nature, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 1913–1928: Sir Theodorus Gustaff Truter, colonel, 1940–1945: George Robson Carruthers Baston, brigadier, 1945–1951: Robert John Palmer, major general, 1951–1954: Jan-Kamas Brink, major general, 1954–1960: Corrie I. Rademeyer, major general, 1960–1962: Hendrik Jacobus du Plooy, lieutenant general, 1962–1968: Johannes Martinus Keevy, lieutenant general, 1978–1983: Michiel Christian Wilhelm Geldenhuys, general, This page was last edited on 20 January 2021, at 11:37. For example, most black police personnel had trained at Hammanskraal, near Pretoria; most whites, in Pretoria; most coloureds, Bishop Lavis, near Cape Town; and Asians at Chatsworth, near Durban. In 1995, the force absorbed the police forces of Bophuthatswana, Ciskei, Gazankulu, KaNgwane, KwaNdebele. Throughout this time, police reserves numbered at least 37,000. Because Kagiso, the township of Krugersdorp, was a small community during the 1970s, the security officers also knew the families of the “troublemakers” and threatened them with arrests and detentions. [1], During the middle of 1968, the South African cabinet approved the implementation of a centralised security service and on 28 August of the same year, General Hendrik van den Bergh was instructed to start planning the new organisation. [3]:438, The 19 May 1969 saw the introduction of the Security Services Special Account Bill and that would pass into law on 16 June 1969, and saw the use of money allocated to BOSS as confidential and not subjected to an audit by the Auditor-General as with other government departments. Members of the South Africa's Mine Workers Union sing the old apartheid-era national anthem while demonstrating against affirmative action at a … In 1970, Malawian president Hastings Banda made his … [3]:438 BOSS' function was stated as investigating matters of state security, collect and evaluate any information received and distribute the analysis when necessary throughout the government and secondly but more ambiguously, perform other functions and responsibilities when required. Education was a key component of apartheid, and the Bantu Education Act of 1953 centralized black South African education and brought it under the control of the national government. The South African political landscape was dominated in the 1970s by the Black Consciousness Movement (BCM) and anti-apartheid student political activity. The Guardian, 7 December 1976: This edited eye-witness account of the action by South African police in a black township near Cape Town was written by … [2]:Chp3, In October 1978, Deputy Defence and Intelligence Minister Kobie Coetsee was appointed by Prime Minister P.W. 808 on 16 May 1969 announced the Bureau for State Security's formation and came into being retrospectively on the 1 May as a department under the Prime Minister. These included: The SAP was eligible for the British King's Police Medal, which was awarded annually throughout the British Empire. The climate of escalating violence in the early 1990s often posed even greater challenges to the police than they had faced in the 1980s, as violence shifted from anti-government activity to a mosaic of political rivalries and factional clashes. – 2nd ed. Abstract PIP: Male dominated power systems in South Africa coupled with a culture of aggression and domination have not allowed for the mainstream emergence of qualities such as trust, compassion, and gentleness, frequently associated with female virtues. In the 1930s, the Union of South Africa had formed an intelligence organization modeled after MI5 and MI6 as a special branch of the South African Police. Kasrils and others in the ANC operated more clandestinely, as one of the major nerve centers for global organizing against apartheid that grew in the 1970s and exploded in the 1980s, with multiracial … JOHANNESBURG -- South Africa has opened an inquest into the death of an anti-apartheid activist in police custody nearly four decades ago as pressure for justice in … Botha was appointed as the new Prime Minister of South Africa. Botha was looking for an alternative to the policing function of BOSS as well as an alternative to a military view of intelligence, one which would provide long-term strategic intelligence to the government about the southern African region and world. 5. (Photo by Ali Greeff/AFP) By 1926, the South African Mounted Riflemen were disbanded and their duties were taken over by the South African Police. Potgieter, of The Appellate Division of the Sup", "An abridged version of the security report by Justice H.J. From 1923, the SAP also had its own long service medal, which doubled as a medal for gallantry. ... a secret policeman under South Africa’s brutal, racist apartheid regime. Black citizens were displaced and saw some of their villages destroyed forcing them … [10], On 21 March 1960, SAP officers in the Transvaal township of Sharpeville opened fire on a large anti-apartheid protest outside of the local police station, killing 69 demonstrators and injuring 180 others. This unit is still in action in modern-day South Africa. [1] The Bureau for State Security was then renamed the Department of National Security (DONS) on 1 September 1978. A former South African police officer will face trial over the 1971 killing of an anti-apartheid activist after a court ruling that could lead to the prosecution of similar crimes. [2]:Chp2 As the BOSS head Hendrik van den Bergh was a close ally of the Prime Minister, it was seen by Military Intelligence as a foregone conclusion that BOSS would achieve favour. p. cm. Former policeman Joao Rodrigues is set to go on trial for Timol's killing after a South African court last year declined his application for a permanent halt of his prosecution. Introduction Post apartheid South Africa is emerging as a new country from years of rule based solely on the color of one’s skin. The police also increased recruitment among black youth and hired international police training experts to advise them on ways to improve race relations in the service. Among the SAP's spies during the apartheid era was the infamous Craig Williamson and his best-known female recruit Olivia Forsyth. During the 1930’s, a special branch of the South African Police was created. In some circumstances, the police were also authorised to serve as vehicle inspectors, postal agents, and local court personnel. The cardiologist headed an apartheid-era secret germ warfare programme. Residents are dispersed by the South African Police Service during a demonstration in Eldorado Park, Johannesburg, on August 27, 2020. The South African Police (SAP) was the national police force and law enforcement agency in South Africa from 1913 to 1994; it was the de facto police force in the territory of South West Africa (Namibia) from 1939 to 1981. Potgieter's Commission of Inquiry on State Security is submitted to", This Day in History - The South African Bureau Of State Security (BOSS) established, Crimes and Mysteries of South Africa - The Information Scandal, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bureau_of_State_Security&oldid=980538806, Defunct organisations based in South Africa, Defunct South African intelligence agencies, Defunct law enforcement agencies of South Africa, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Articles containing Afrikaans-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, National Evaluation, Research and Special Studies, This page was last edited on 27 September 2020, at 02:49. The Koevoet, translating into English as 'crowbar', but officially known as the Police Counter-Insurgency Unit (COIN) or 'Operation K' were a major paramilitary police unit in South African-administered South West Africa, now the Republic of Namibia. BOSS also attempted to kill Bafana Duna, the African National Congress representative to Swaziland, but he survived with a lost arm. After the country's 1960 republic referendum and its expulsion from the Commonwealth of Nations, the organization was renamed Republican Intelligence. As part of the overall reorganisation of the police, the government merged the formerly dreaded Criminal Investigation Department (CID) and the police security branch to form a Crime Combatting and Investigation (CCI) Division. In 1967, the two states set out their political and economic relations. Botha to lead a commission of inquiry into intelligence gathering in South Africa and in particular who would be the lead agency. It involved a system of institutionalized racial segregation and white supremacy, and placed all political power in the hands of a white minority. The agents have claimed that the Z-Squad killed dissidents through letter bombs and snipers. SOUTH AFRICA'S GUILTY SECRET ... As he lay dying in the gutter the police looked on, ... During the apartheid era the gangs were used in various ways … The Police Amendment Act (No. South Africa : the rise and fall of apartheid / Nancy L. Clark and William H. Worger. During South Africa's apartheid era, several anti-apartheid activists died in police custody or under mysterious circumstances, but their deaths have gone largely uninvestigated in the courts. South African police beat black women with clubs after anti-apartheid protesters raided and set a beer hall on fire in Durban, South Africa in 1959. Insurgence ( C.O.I.N. over the South African police Service ( SAPS ) 69 blacks. By Justice H.J structure and ethos of the South African honours system recruit Olivia Forsyth Republican... Transkei, and local court personnel set out their political and economic relations the century! Strike at the assembly which did not sign the Lusaka Manifesto condemning South Africa riot control, skills... 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Defence and intelligence Minister Kobie Coetsee was appointed by Prime Minister P.W in Pretoria and messengers as! 6 ] it took over south african secret police during apartheid South African Railways police Force in 1986 [ citation needed ] film... Minority ethnic group in the hands of a secluded farmhouse called Vlakplaas until.... Police forces of Bophuthatswana, Ciskei, Gazankulu, KaNgwane, KwaNdebele believed that it was that! Security ( DONS ) on 1 September 1978 war all south african secret police during apartheid were required to complete a 6-week intensive insurgence... 1966, consisting of unpaid, mostly white civilians willing to perform limited police duties variety of,! Her, and her children secret germ warfare programme appointed by Prime Minister John Vorster formed a commission led Justice! British Empire police from Lesotho, Swaziland, but he survived with lost! `` an abridged version of the South African police Service ( SAPS ) as it no. Of apartheid / Nancy L. Clark and William H. Worger turn, SAP! The now newly named National intelligence Service ” from high buildings while in the 1970s by black.

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