Household Size and Composition in the Developing world. The mission of this institute is to empower supervising women and their families and all activities of this institute is nonpolitical and non profit in accordance with Article 2 of Articles of Association. Buvinic, M., & Youssef, N. (1978). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Gender inequality both leads to and is a result of food insecurity.According to estimates women and girls make up 60% of the world's chronically hungry and little progress has been made in ensuring the equal right … (Women’s Rights and Democracy:Peaceful Transformation in Iran, 2006). According chart 2 65 percent of single person households have been formed by women.On the other hand, with the increasing of the number of household members, the percentage of households with female head is reduced. The world’s women 1995: Trends and statistics. Similarly, in seven out of nine countries across Africa, Asia and Latin America, female-headed households were less likely to use credit than male-headed households . Despite the noticeable raise in funds of Imam Khomeini Relief Committee and Behzisti (welfare organization) to more than 1.5 billion $ in year (2008) they have not effectively able to meet with basic needs of the urban and rural women heads of household. In Iran, On the basis of census of 2006, more than 1,641,000(9.45%) households headed by the women have been identified. the poorest groups. Schultz, R. W. (1976). 188817 and to establish Soorchin semi industrial kitchen as well as to create and equip dressmaking workshop under trade name of Piratan and to train the assistance seekers with use of professors of Alzahra University which was confirmed by Islamic Development Bank (IDB) granting $19000 to the institute. Retrieved September 16, 2009, from International Labour organization (ILO) Web Site: http://www.ilo.org/public/libdoc/ILO-Thesaurus/english/tr3578.htm. “Women and Empowerment. (S. Akhtary, Trans.) This section compares the 50 most populous of those to each other and the United States. United Nations. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FEMALE-HEADED HOUSEHOLDS IN THE CITY OF IBADAN. NGO Reports on B+10,SITUATION ANALYSIS OF WOMEN IN IRAN 10 YEARS AFTER BEIJING, Asian pasific women's watch. Some of these organizations went beyond charity, education, and reproductive health and became engaged in political, cultural, and legal aspects of women’s rights.The shift have happened because women believe that fundamental changes are possible within the society. A: Culture is the characteristics and knowledge of a particular group of people, encompassing language,... Q: It is a picture that shows the location of things or places. The Imam Khomeini Relief Committee covered 1023773 female headed households with 1997995 members in 2008. . All of this people are supervisor of their family and have job and high social position in Academic or economic aspects. In addition to that there are certain jobs which are labelled to be suitable for women only, such as nurses or jobs in social care. Tehran: Municipality Publication. Over half of internal immigrants in this country are women, the majority of whom travel to large cities for education and employment purposes. Kar va Kargar Newspaper(in persian) . Furthermore direct payment makes needy these households to government and they cannot be self-sufficient and active unite in the society. Retrieved April 2010, 23, from Imam Khomeini relife committee: http://www.emdad.ir/gozareshat/files/s/1387/fasle3.pdf. Number of such households with incomes below the poverty level. (s. c. Iran, Producer, & statistical center of Iran) Retrieved 4 30, 2010, from statistical center of Iran Web site: http://amar.sci.org.ir/Detail.aspx?Ln=F&no=262987&S=TP. Welfare: this addresses only the basic needs of women, without recognizing or attempting to solve the underlying structural causes which necessitate provision of welfare services. (2008). Since the family is the basic purchase and consumption unit, marketers need to continuously study changes in family structure as they relate to changes in market behaviors. Bongaarts, J. Following the 1979 revolution, a number of new NGOs emerged with the goal of furthering Islamic values. According statistic 90% of elderly men have spouses whereas this statistic for elderly women is 51%.The ratio of elderly women who have been widowed is almost 4.9% times more than elderly widowers. The idea of power is at the root of the term empowerment. 2-Social and cultural empowerment of the assistance seekers: • promoting level of knowledge, technical and vocational skills and life skills in assistance seeker (by creation of necessary facilities for the assistance seekers in order to continue studies and necessary coordination so that her education and training don’t damage her work and care of the children). Feminization is a process; higher poverty is a state. There is signifi-cant variation by region: the proportion of households headed by a female ranges from a low of 7 percent Unfortunately, many women supervising the family are in poor, low income group and those lacking necessary skills for employment and there are other barriers to their growth and development. Household Types by Place in the United States There are 29,322 places in the United States. of female­ and male­headed households to BOX 5.1 Differences in Needs and Equivalence Scales Global poverty estimates use data on consumption or income per capita to measure poverty. Journal of Political Economy , 81. Clearly, gender plays a key role in both wealth and the exchange of money. The training of development professionals, in government, NGOs or donor agencies does not always equip them to consult and involve others, which supporting empowerment requires. The goal of headship-based indicators is to represent what happens to specific vulnerable groups and their families, therefore their unit o… Mohammadi, E. (2009, February 2). So in spite of laws and traditions that prescribe that married women belong to the husband’s family; it is the women’s families that support them when poverty prevails. Women research(in persian) , 2 (1), 49-70. In this framework, the empowerment approach focuses on mobilizing the self-help efforts of the poor, rather than providing them with social welfare. While the poverty rate of female headed households in urban areas has decreased, uneducated and low literate female headed households remain at high risk of poverty. It is necessary to note that this sample can be generalized in Iran and be implemented in many developing countries with partial differences commensurate with customs of the countries. Women are merely passive beneficiaries of welfare benefits. 5. (2008). Female headed households of Iran, because of low education levels, small families and fewer numbers of income earners within the family can be classified as the poorest groups living in poverty. Because they have less decision-making and bargaining power, women may suffer more during drought or hunger periods, for example eating less. With the increase in the age of head of household, the economical well-being of the family decreases. (Shababi, 2010, p. 2). Women are generally excluded from economic transactions in the local markets. Finally, despite the noticeable increase in funds of Imam Khomeini Relief Committee and Behzisti (welfare organization) they have not effectively been able to meet with basic needs of the urban and rural elderly and women heads of household. Chart 3:Number of persons in households with female head based on age group of head of household-2006 (Population Statistics, 2008). This means that women without husbands mainly are supported by their own family. For more than half of the poor women the cause of headship was their husbands’ deaths, while divorce was the reason for 18%. Women Non-governmental organizations (NGOs), in the form of charities that provide services such as food, medication, and education, became formally recognized entities in the aftermath of the 1906 constitutional revolution (Kazemi, 1996). Women headed households become poorer and more every day. This problem mostly affects the disabled, the elderly and women heads of household, who will be likely to suffer the most as result of inadequate resources in the system. Women in the maze of life. Economic empowerment is also the empowering of disadvantaged sections of the population like FHH. Development initiatives have often tried to direct resources and services to FHHs on the assumption that they were poorer than households headed by men (MHHs) and less able to improve their situation without special help. (Samadi, 2009). The aim was to help such families regain financial stability. Moreover direct payment makes dependent these households to government and they cannot be independent and active unite in the society. 50000 women heads of household welfare are waiting for welfare organization. Similarly, in seven out of nine countries across Africa, Asia and Latin America, female-headed households were less likely to use credit than male-headed households . Asgary, N., & Pagán, J. World Development , 23 (12), 2033-2039. The increase in female-headed households would thus appear to be related to the increase in gangs. http://www.mojnews.com/fa/Miscellaneous/ViewContents.aspx?Contract=cms_C... http://www.emdad.ir/gozareshat/files/s/1387/fasle3.pdf, http://www.maslehat.ir/Contents.aspx?p=18cfba1c-1010-4b1e-b7ac-eda00fdf3302. One of the most important NGOs emerged in Khatami Era is Sedighin charity institution. By virtue of the fourth plan of development, the government is obliged to take action regarding preparation of master plan for empowering the women supervising their family. Similarly, the international poverty line, which is anchored on the average cost of meeting basic needs in the poorest societies, is expressed in per capita terms. Since 88 percent of all single parent families are headed by women (Statistical Abstract 1989 t67), the study of female-headed single parent families is particularly needed. Sedighin Charity Institute is seeking the solution for problems of the supervising women in Iran through empowerment.Sedighin Charity Institute suggests some plans and methods for removing deprivation from this class all of which are summarized in empowering process. Literacy status of women headed households is as follows: In terms of literacy, 71% of illiterate women headed households compared with the average amount of illiteracy in Iran shows a huge gap. A large number of educated women heads of households voluntarily created NGOs to empower poor FHH. The path of empowerment is initiated when women recognize lack of access to resources as a barrier to their growth and overall well-being and take action to redress this. They differ by the unit of analysis and by the population included in each group, and obviously have different meanings. Identifying the Poor: Is ‘Headshipa Useful Concept?’. Oxfam Gender Training Manual. a) Explain what is meant by ‘serial monogamy’. While there are different types of female-headed households, in almost all countries. Between 2008 and 2015, more than 83,000 households in rural areas (7 percent of the population) were able to access electricity services thanks to the P2P pro-gram; of these, 6,320 were female-headed. For example, literature about "empowerment" is found in the fields of education, social work, psychology, in US radical politics in the 1960s and community development groups in the North and South, as well as in the work of feminist and development organizations. (Law of the Fourth social,economic and cultural development plan of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 2004), But actually monthly pension of women heads of households has been remained on level of 10 to 20 percent annual minimum wage since the first year of plan. Case Study: "Sedighin" charity institution in Iran, Research Scholar, Heidelberg University, Germany, http://www.ilo.org/public/libdoc/ILO-Thesaurus/english/tr3578.htm, http://www.mehrnews.com/fa/newsdetail.aspx?NewsID=1149220, http://eng.kilden.forskningsradet.no/c52778/nyhet/vis.html?tid=53514. Hence central planning for FHH empowerment in Iran, need to increasing financial and human recourses, and the government could not afford it. 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